From Disinformation to Influence Operations: The Evolution of Disinformation in Three Electoral Cycles in the Philippines

How has the Philippine disinformation landscape evolved since 2016? How different was the 2022 presidential election from previous electoral cycles? And what lessons can we learn from electoral triumphs and defeats often associated with disinformation? 

This report goes to the heart of these questions. It aims to understand the evolving character of disinformation—the tactics used, the actors involved, the wider context in which disinformation unfolds, and the responses of the government, tech platforms, and civil society to these trends. 

The report is authored by Filipino researchers Rossine Fallorina, Jose Mari Hall Lanuza, Juan Gabriel Felix, Ferdinand Sanchez II, Dr. Jonathan Corpus Ong, and Dr. Nicole Curato. 

This is a companion piece to Parallel Public Spheres: Influence Operations in the 2022 Philippine Elections.  

Both reports are part of a broader research effort that seeks to study new trends in disinformation operations and other digital propaganda in the Philippines. The project is funded by Internews under its Six-Track Engagement Against Disinformation Initiative (STEAD-i).